Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer - Symptoms, Risks and Types of Stages

Kidney Cancer - Symptoms, Risks and Types of Stages

Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each approx the size of an individual’s fist. They are located behind the intestines, with one kidney on both sides of the spine. Their main function is to clean the blood by removing waste products and making urine. The urine passes from each kidney by a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is also known as renal adenocarcinoma, hypernephroma, renal or kidney cancer. The rate of kidney cancer seems to be higher because imaging procedures such as computerized tomography (CT) scans are being used more often. These tests may develop the accidental discovery of more kidney cancers. At Cancer Therapy India, a multidisciplinary team of the best oncologists in Bangalore offers a variety of therapies to help keep an individual strong during and after treatment. 

Symptoms of Kidney Cancer

In the beginning, renal cell carcinoma does not usually cause any signs or symptoms. As the disease gets more severe, one might have some warning signs such as:

  • A lump on belly, side, or lower back
  • Blood in pee
  • Low back pain on both or one side
  • Losing weight for no clear reason
  • Not feeling hungry
  • Fever
  • Feeling tired and lazy
  • Not enough red blood cells (anemia)
  • Night sweats
  • High levels of calcium in the blood
  • High blood pressure

If you notice any of these symptoms then consult the visit to the best hospital in Bangalore for kidney cancer treatment.

Risk factors of Kidney Cancer

Factors that can higher the risk of kidney cancer include:

  • Older age
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure (Hypertension)
  • Treatment for kidney failure
  • Certain inherited syndromes
  • Family history of kidney cancer

Stages of Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer is divided into 4 stages. They are:

  • Stage 1: In this stage, a tumor of about 7 cm or smaller appears in the kidney.
  • Stage 2: A tumor larger than 7 cm is in the kidney.
  • Stage 3: In this stage,
    • A tumor is in the kidney and has at least spread to one nearby lymph node.
    • A tumor is the kidney’s main blood vessel and may be in the close lymph node.
    • A tumor is in the fatty tissue around the kidney and may spread to the nearby lymph nodes.
    • A tumor grows into the veins or the perinephric tissues but not beyond the Gerota’s fascia or into the ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • Stage 4: In kidney cancer stage 4,
    • Cancer has grown more and spread beyond the fat layer of tissue around the kidneys and may also be near the lymph nodes.
    • Cancer may have spread to other parts of the body such as the bowel, lungs, or pancreas.
    • Cancer has spread beyond Gerota’s fascia and spread into the ipsilateral adrenal gland.

Diagnosis of Kidney Cancer

If the surgeon suspects that an individual has kidney cancer, they’ll ask a few questions about personal and family medical history and then do a physical examination. Findings that can indicate kidney cancer include swelling or lumps in the abdomen, or, in men, enlarged veins in the scrotal sac (varicocele).

If kidney cancer is suspected, the surgeon will suggest several tests to get an accurate diagnosis. These may include:

  • Complete blood count
  • CT scan
  • Abdominal and kidney ultrasounds
  • Urine examination
  • Biopsy

Treatments for Kidney Cancer

The experts may recommend one or more kidney cancer treatment options depending on the stage.


Surgery can involve different types of procedures. In a partial nephrectomy, part of the kidney is removed while in a nephrectomy, the complete kidney may be removed. Depending on how much cancer has spread, more extensive surgery may be required to remove surrounding tissue, lymph nodes, and adrenal gland. This is a radical nephrectomy. If both kidneys are removed, then dialysis or a transplant is compulsory.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy involves using high-energy or powerful X-rays to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is sometimes used to manage or reduce symptoms of kidney cancer that have spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain and bones.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancerous cells. It can be given intravenously or orally, depending on what medication is chosen. With the aid of this treatment, the injected drug flows throughout the body, destroying cancer cells.

Biologic Therapy

Biologic therapy, also called immunotherapy, works with the immune system to fight cancer. Enzymes or substances produced by the body are used to defend the body against cancer.

Targeted Therapy

In targeted therapy drugs are used to fight certain abnormal or cancer cells without damaging healthy cells. Some drugs work on blood vessels to block blood flow to the tumor, “starving” and shrinking it.

If you’ve been diagnosed with kidney cancer, then consult with the best cancer hospital in Bangalore, Cancer Therapy India immediately. This hospital provides the best treatment and cares an individual need by providing a speedy recovery plan.